Justin Taylor has posted a link to a lecture series by J.I. Packer on the history and theology of the Puritans (History and Theology of the Puritans). One of the most influential theologians of our time, Packer is an expert on the topic. I encourage you to take the time to enjoy these lectures. Also, if you have never read "Knowing God" by Packer it is one of my "desert island" books.
A few other excellent resources on the Puritans are:
Meet the Puritans by Joel Beeke
Quest for Godliness by J.I. Packer
Worldly Saints by Leland Ryken
The Devoted Life by Kapic and Gleason